Establishment of an SSDL

Establishing an SSDL from nothing is a long process and involves different steps related to human resources, infrastructure and service development. The SSDL Charter contains only the most important points required for the SSDL Network membership. More detailed information about quality management and technical implementation can be found from the ISO/IEC 17025 standard and from the references in Table 1.

TABLE I. INTERNATIONAL GUIDELINES FOR DIFFERENT STEPS OF THE RADIATION DOSIMETRY CHAIN [1]
  External beam Radiation therapy Brachytherapy Nuclear Medicine Diagnostic Radiology Radiation protection
GENERAL
Standards fordose quantities ICRU 85a (2011) [1], ICRU 90 (2016) [2]
ICRU 64 (2001) [3] ICRU 72 (2004) [4] ICRU 67 (2002) [5] ICRU Report 74 (2005) [6] ICRU 51 (1993) [7]
Standards for dosimeters IEC 60731:2011 [8] IEC 62467-1:2009 [9] IEC 61303:1994 [10]
IEC TR 61948-4:2006 [11]
IEC 61674:2012 [12]
IEC 60580:2000 [13]
IEC 60846-1:2009 & IEC 60846-2:2015 [14, 15]
IEC 61526: 2010 [16]
PSDL
Comparisons Key and supplementary comparisons KCDB
SSDL CALIBRATIONS
Code of Practice for SSDLs IAEA TRS 469 [17] IAEA TecDoc 1274 [18] IAEA TRS 454 [19] IAEA TRS 457 [20] IAEA SRS 16 [22]
  ICRU 72 (2004) [4]   IEC 61267:2005 [21] ISO 4037 [23–26]
ISO 29661:2012 [27]
External check IAEA comparisons and
dose audits
IAEA comparisons IAEA comparisons and
dose audits
Bilateral comparison or regional comparisons
FIELD MEASUREMENTS
Code of Practice for end user IAEA TRS 398 [28] IAEA TecDoc 1274 [18] IAEA TRS 454 [19] IAEA TRS 457 [20]  
  ISO 21439:2009 [29]   ICRU 87 [30]  
External check IAEA dose audit
Regional or national dose audits
PATIENT DOSIMETRY
Code of Practice patient /personal dosimetry ICRU 50 (1993) [31]
ICRU 62 (1999) [32]
ICRU 83 (2010) [33]
ICRU 38 (1985) [34]
ICRU 58 (1997) [35]
ICRU 89 (2013) [36]
  IAEA TRS 457 [20],
ICRP 93 (2004) [37]
ISO 27048:2011 [38]

[1]This table includes some selected reports and standards of the following organizations: International Commission on Radiation Units & Measurements (ICRU), International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Please visit the webpages to find the full list of available and up-to-date releases. All IAEA reports can be freely downloaded from the IAEA publications web site.

REFERENCES

[1] INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON RADIATION UNITS AND MEASUREMENTS, Fundamental Quantities and Units for Ionizing Radiation, ICRU Rep. 85a-Revised, ICRU, Oxford (2011).

[2] INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON RADIATION UNITS AND MEASUREMENTS, Key Data for Ionizing-Radiation Dosimetry: Measurement Standards and Applications, ICRU Rep. 90, ICRU, Oxford (2016).

[3] INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON RADIATION UNITS AND MEASUREMENTS, Dosimetry of High-Energy Photon Beams Based on Standards of Absorbed Dose to Water, ICRU Rep. 64, ICRU, Oxford (2001).

[4] INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON RADIATION UNITS AND MEASUREMENTS, Dosimetry of Beta Rays and Low-Energy Photons for Brachytherapy with Sealed Sources, ICRU Rep. 72, ICRU, Oxford (2004).

[5] INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON RADIATION UNITS AND MEASUREMENTS, Absorbed-Dose Specification in Nuclear Medicine, ICRU Rep. 67, ICRU, Oxford (2002).

[6] INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON RADIATION UNITS AND MEASUREMENTS, Patient Dosimetry for X Rays Used in Medical Imaging, ICRU Rep. 74, ICRU, Oxford (2005).

[7] INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON RADIATION UNITS AND MEASUREMENTS, Quantities and Units in Radiation Protection Dosimetry, ICRU Rep. 51, ICRU, Oxford (1993).

[8] INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION, Medical Electrical Equipment — Dosimeters with Ionization Chambers as Used in Radiotherapy, IEC60731:2011, IEC, Geneva (2011).

[9] INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION, Medical Electrical Equipment — Dosimetric Instruments as Used in Brachytherapy — Part 1: Instruments Based on Well-type Ionization Chambers, IEC 62467-1:2009, IEC, Geneva (2009).

[10] INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION, Medical Electrical Equipment — Radionuclide Calibrators — Particular Methods for Describing Performance, IEC 61303:1994, IEC, Geneva (1994).

[11] INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION, Nuclear Medicine Instrumentation — Routine Tests — Part 4: Radionuclide Calibrators, IEC TR 61948-4:2006, IEC, Geneva (2006).

[12] INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION, Medical Electrical Equipment — Dosimeters with Ionization Chambers and/or Semiconductor Detectors as Used in X-ray Diagnostic Imaging, IEC 61674:2012, IEC, Geneva (2012).

[13] INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION, Medical Electrical Equipment — Dose Area Product Meters, IEC 60580:2000, IEC, Geneva (2000).

[14] INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION, Radiation Protection Instrumentation — Ambient and/or Directional Dose Equivalent (Rate) Meters and/or Monitors for Beta, X and Gamma Radiation — Part 1: Portable Workplace and Environmental Meters and Monitors, IEC 60846-1:2009, IEC, Geneva (2009).

[15] INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION, Radiation Protection Instrumentation — Ambient and/or Directional Dose Equivalent (Rate) Meters and/or Monitors for Beta, X and Gamma Radiation — Part 2: High Range Beta and Photon Dose and Dose Rate Portable Instruments for Emergency Radiation Protection Purposes, IEC 60846-2:2015, IEC, Geneva (2015).

[16] INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION, Radiation Protection Instrumentation — Measurement of Personal Dose Equivalents Hp(10) and Hp(0,07) for X, Gamma, Neutron and Beta Radiations — Direct Reading Personal Dose Equivalent Meters, IEC 61526:2010, IEC, Geneva (2010).

[17] INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, Calibration of Reference Dosimeters for External Beam Radiotherapy, Technical Reports Series No. 469, IAEA, Vienna (2009).

[18] INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, Calibration of Photon and Beta Ray Sources Used in Brachytherapy, IAEA-TECDOC-1274, IAEA, Vienna (2002).

[19] INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, Quality Assurance for Radioactivity Measurement in Nuclear Medicine, Technical Reports Series No. 454, IAEA, Vienna (2006).

[20] INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, Dosimetry in Diagnostic Radiology: An International Code of Practice, Technical Reports Series No. 457, IAEA, Vienna (2007).

[21] INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION, Medical Diagnostic X-ray Equipment — Radiation Conditions for Use in the Determination of Characteristics, IEC 61267:2005, IEC, Geneva (2005).

[22] INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, Calibration of Radiation Protection Monitoring Instruments, Safety Reports Series No. 16, IAEA, Vienna (2000).

[23] INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR STANDARDIZATION, X and Gamma Reference Radiation for Calibrating Dosemeters and Doserate Meters and for Determining Their Response as a Function of Photon Energy — Part 1: Radiation Characteristics and Production Methods, ISO 4037-1, ISO, Geneva (1996).

[24] INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR STANDARDIZATION, X and Gamma Reference Radiation for Calibrating Dosemeters and Doserate Meters and for Determining Their Response as a Function of Photon Energy — Part 2: Dosimetry for Radiation Protection over the Energy Ranges from 8 keV to 1,3 MeV and 4 MeV to 9 MeV, ISO 4037-2, ISO, Geneva (1997).

[25] INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR STANDARDIZATION, X and Gamma Reference Radiation for Calibrating Dosemeters and Doserate Meters and for Determining Their Response as a Function of Photon Energy — Part 3: Calibration of Area and Personal Dosemeters and the Measurement of Their Response as a Function of Energy and Angle of Incidence, ISO 4037-3, ISO, Geneva (1999).

[26] INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR STANDARDIZATION, X and Gamma Reference Radiation for Calibrating Dosemeters and Doserate Meters and for Determining Their Response as a Function of Photon Energy — Part 4: Calibration of Area and Personal Dosemeters in Low Energy X Reference Radiation Fields, ISO 4037-4, ISO, Geneva (2004).

[27] INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR STANDARDIZATION, Reference Radiation Fields for Radiation Protection — Definitions and Fundamental Concepts, ISO 29661, ISO, Geneva (2012).

[28] INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, Absorbed Dose Determination in External Beam Radiotherapy, Technical Reports Series No. 398, IAEA, Vienna (2000)..

[29] INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR STANDARDIZATION, Clinical Dosimetry — Beta Radiation Sources for Brachytherapy, ISO 21439, ISO, Geneva (2009).

[30] INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON RADIATION UNITS AND MEASUREMENTS, Radiation Dose and Image-Quality Assessment in Computed Tomography, ICRU Rep. 87, ICRU, Oxford (2012).

[31] INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON RADIATION UNITS AND MEASUREMENTS, Prescribing, Recording, and Reporting Photon Beam Therapy, ICRU Rep. 50, ICRU, Oxford (1993).

[32] INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON RADIATION UNITS AND MEASUREMENTS, Prescribing, Recording and Reporting Photon Beam Therapy ICRU Rep. 62 (Supplement to ICRU Rep. 50), ICRU, Oxford (1999).

[33] INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON RADIATION UNITS AND MEASUREMENTS, Prescribing, Recording, and Reporting Intensity-Modulated Photon-Beam Therapy (IMRT), ICRU Rep. 83, ICRU, Oxford (2010).

[34] INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON RADIATION UNITS AND MEASUREMENTS, Dose and Volume Specification for Reporting Intracavitary Therapy in Gynecology, ICRU Rep. 38, ICRU, Oxford (1985).

[35] INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON RADIATION UNITS AND MEASUREMENTS, Dose and Volume Specification for Reporting Interstitial Therapy, ICRU Rep. 58, ICRU, Oxford (1997).

[36] INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON RADIATION UNITS AND MEASUREMENTS, Prescribing, Recording and Reporting Brachytherapy for Cancer of the Cervix, ICRU Rep. 89, ICRU, Oxford (2013).

[37] INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON RADIOLOGICAL PROTECTION, Managing Patient Dose in Digital Radiology, ICRP Publication 93. Ann. ICRP 34 (1), ICRP, Oxford (2004).

[38] INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR STANDARDIZATION, Radiation Protection — Dose Assessment for the Monitoring of Workers for Internal Radiation Exposure, ISO 27048, ISO, Geneva (2011).